To diagnose and treat rejection in renal transplant patients, clinicians rely primarily on pathological findings from renal biopsies, which are reviewed by renal pathologists. Treatment approaches depend on the specific type of rejection. In the case of T-cell-mediated rejection, mild cases (e.g., borderline T-cell-mediated rejection) may only require optimization of existing immunosuppressive regimens, whereas severe cases (e.g., Banff grade III rejection) may be warranted. ) is rabbit anti-thymocyte immunoglobulin6Treatment of antibody-mediated rejection, on the other hand, uses approaches such as plasmapheresis and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or B to eliminate the causative antibodies (usually donor-specific antibodies against HLA or non-HLA antigens, or It focuses on removing donor-specific antibodies against ABO blood antigens.cell-depleting agents such as rituximab7,8However, these rejection therapies can have quite a few side effects. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians can provide an accurate and timely diagnosis of rejection. Failure to provide adequate therapy quickly can lead to allograft failure or significantly reduced allograft survival.