Advise patients on how to treat depression

One of the most common mood disorders in the United States is depression. Also called major depressive disorder, this condition causes persistent feelings of sadness and loss of interest in daily living activities.

Depression can affect all aspects of a person’s life, including the way a person feels, behaves, thinks, and behaves. These daily effects can cause many people with depression to find life difficult and, in severe cases, to experience suicidal thoughts.

Woman battling depression | Photo Woman battling depression Image credit: Kittiphan –

Depression can affect a person for a long time and it takes time to recover or learn to cope. Patients with depression require long-term treatment and supportive care with medication or non-pharmacology. ¹

Symptoms of depression include feelings of sadness, emptiness, and hopelessness. Some people may feel angry, more irritable, and lose interest in normal daily activities, such as hobbies, sports, family events, and relationships. Insomnia and oversleeping can also affect some depressed patients. Fatigue, anxiety, restlessness, slowed thinking, loss of appetite, and weight loss may also be other symptoms that some patients exhibit and experience. ¹

Diagnosing depression may include a physical examination, which may lead to the identification of physical health problems that may be contributing to depression. Also, test values ​​can be high or low, such as thyroid-related tests, which can lead to symptoms of depression and lack of energy. Testing may also include a psychological and psychiatric evaluation to understand the patient’s thought processes, behavior, and background information that may have adversely affected the patient. Finally, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is used to confirm a person’s diagnosis of depression¹.

Antidepressants are one of the main classes of drugs that can reduce the symptoms of depression. Antidepressants work by correcting chemical imbalances and stabilizing neurotransmitters in the brain, alleviating symptoms of depression, improving mood, and helping a person function as normally as possible. You can get closer to your abilities.

Major neurotransmitters involved in depression include serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. When the nerves that receive neurotransmitters are blocked, the transmitting nerves reuptake their own neurotransmitters. This leads to a lack of neurotransmitter transmission and increased symptoms of depression. Antidepressants work by blocking the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters, resulting in increased neurotransmission. ²

Examples of antidepressants include tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MOIs), and others.

The most common antidepressants currently used in the United States include duloxetine (Cymbalta, Eli Lilly), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Pfizer), vilazodone (Viibryd, Allergan), citalopram (Celexa, Allergan), sertraline (Zoloft, Pfizer), fluoxetine (Prozac, Lilly), trazodone (Desirel, Zydus), and escitalopram (Lexapro, Forest Laboratories).

Other treatments may include psychotherapy. This helps patients manage depression, identify problems, and helps providers provide the best targeted treatment options. Another non-pharmacological treatment option is electroconvulsive therapy, which sends electrical currents through the brain to affect the function of neurotransmitters. The next option is transcranial magnetic stimulation, which may be an option for patients who have not responded to medication. This therapy sends magnetic pulses to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. ¹

Other treatments include cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive care.

An estimated 21 million adults in the United States suffer from depressive episodes, representing approximately 9% of the adult population. Women are more likely to experience such episodes or outright depression. With treatment options now available, including pharmacotherapy, and increasing awareness and acceptance, these patients have a better chance of coping with their symptoms and transitioning towards a better, more normal lifestyle. I can.


1. Depression (major depressive disorder). Mayo Clinic. October 14, 2022. Accessed May 24, 2023.

2. Medications for depression (antidepressants). WebMD. August 14, 2022. Accessed May 24, 2023.

3. What are the top 10 antidepressants? eMedical Health. Posted May 24, 2022. Accessed May 24, 2023.

4. Depression treatment for adults. American Psychological Association. August 2019. Accessed May 24, 2023. Adults

5. Major depression. National Institute of Mental Health. Updated January 2022. Accessed May 24, 2023.,-Figure%201 %20shows&text=An%20estimated% 2021.0%20 million%20adults,comparison%20to%20males%20(6.2%25).

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